Production of Wool | How wool is made
The wool is obtained mainly from animals like sheep, yak and goat. Wool is acquired from the fleece or hair of these animals. Sheep, goat, camel, yak, alpaca are the animals that can give wool. There are two types of fibres in sheep’s hair:
1. The Rough beard hair
2. The soft under hair which is present just near to the skin of the sheep.
Wool is made from the soft hair of the sheep because of its fine quality.
All these animals have an outer covering of hair, which is shaved off to obtain wool fibres. Animal fibres are naturally obtained from animals. Some animals that live in cold places generally develop a thick coat of hair on their body. Wool can be sheared from the living animal or pulled from the hide after the animal has been slaughtered for its meat. Sheared wool is called fleece or clipwool and wool taken from the hides of slaughtered animal is called pulled wool which is inferior in quality to fleece or clip wool.
The Process of obtaining Wool | Wool Processing
Step 1: Shearing : It is a process of removing the fleece of the sheep along with a thin layer of its skin. Shearing is conducted generally in hot weather so that the sheep do not feel cold and can survive easily. The shearing process does not hurt the sheep because the upper part of the skin is normally dead skin.
Step 2: Scouring : It is a process of removing dirt, grease and dust from the hair removed from the sheep. It is generally done with the help of machines.
Step 3: Sorting : It is the process of separating the hair of the sheep according to their textures.
Step 4: Removing of burrs : In this step, the burrs or small fibres present on the hair are picked out. Then the hair is cleaned and dried out. The product so obtained is the wool that can now be converted into fibres.
Step 5: Coloring : of wool fibres In this step, the fibres are dyed in different colours.
Step 6: Rolling of wool : In the last step, the fibres for wool so obtained is straightened out combed and then rolled into a yarn.
Wool Production in India
Wool production industries are located majorly in Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra and Gujrat. Most of woolen industries are located in Punjab and Haryana. Sheep are reared (breed and raised) all over India in order to acquire wool from them such as in Jammu and Kashmir, Rajasthan, Arunachal Pradesh and Gujarat. India also imports high quality wool from Australia and New Zealand for domestic industrial uses.
Frequently Asked Question about Wool Production: FAQs
Merino breed of sheep is considered best for high quality wool production.
Australian climate is suitable for rearing of fine quality sheep rearing. Australia has achieved command over selective breeding of sheep. Continuous development of sheep breed, has resulted in good quality sheep in Australia.
Australian bred Merino sheep produces large quantities of this fine wool under these conditions.