Question 33 (Textile Engineering & Fibre Science)
Match the items in Group I with those in Group II.
|Group I||Group II|
|P||Crystallinity||1||Sonic modulus tester|
|Q||Surface features||2||Infrared spectrophotometer|
|R||Orientation||3||Scanning electron microscope|
|S||Functional group||4||Differential scanning calorimeter|
|(A)||P-1, Q-2, R-3, S-4|
|(B)||P-3, Q-2, R-1, S-4|
|(C)||P-4, Q-3, R-1, S-2|
|(D)||P-4, Q-3, R-2, S-1|
Frequently Asked Questions | FAQs
What is sonic modulus?
The sonic modulus can be used to determine the degree of fiber orientation in textiles. Fiber orientation is an important factor that affects the mechanical and physical properties of textile materials.
When fibers are arranged in a specific direction, they can provide increased strength, stiffness, and resistance to deformation in that direction. The degree of fiber orientation can be measured using the sonic modulus tester, which measures the speed of sound through the material in different directions.
By measuring the sonic modulus in different directions, it is possible to determine the degree of fiber orientation in the fabric. A high sonic modulus in one direction indicates a high degree of fiber orientation in that direction, while a low sonic modulus indicates less orientation.
The degree of fiber orientation in textiles can affect the fabric’s properties in various ways, such as its tensile strength, stiffness, and resistance to deformation. By measuring the sonic modulus and determining the degree of fiber orientation, textile manufacturers and researchers can better understand the properties of different fabrics and optimize their production processes to achieve desired characteristics.
Overall, the sonic modulus is a useful tool for evaluating the orientation of fibers in textiles and understanding how this orientation affects the performance of the material.
What is infrared spectrophotometer used for?
Infrared (IR) spectrophotometry is a technique used in the textile industry for analyzing the chemical composition of fibers, yarns, fabrics, and other textile materials. An infrared spectrophotometer is an instrument that measures the absorption or transmission of infrared radiation by a material at different wavelengths.
In textile analysis, an infrared spectrophotometer can be used to identify the type of fibers used in a fabric or yarn, as different fibers have unique spectral fingerprints in the infrared region. For example, wool, cotton, and polyester fibers each have characteristic absorption spectra that can be used to identify them.
In addition to fiber identification, infrared spectrophotometry can be used to analyze other aspects of textile materials, such as the presence of dyes, finishes, and other chemical additives. By analyzing the infrared spectra of a material before and after a treatment or finishing process, it is possible to determine the changes in the material’s chemical composition.
Overall, the use of infrared spectrophotometry in textile analysis can provide valuable information about the composition and properties of textile materials, and can aid in quality control, product development, and research and development in the textile industry.
What is a scanning electron microscope used for?
A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a type of microscope that uses electrons to produce high-resolution images of the surface of a material. The SEM works by scanning a focused beam of electrons across the surface of the sample, and detecting the signals that are emitted or scattered by the sample in response to the electron beam.
The images produced by a scanning electron microscope are typically very detailed and have a high magnification, which makes them useful for a variety of applications in science and industry. Some of the common uses of SEMs include:
Material characterization: Scanning electron microscopes are often used to analyze the microstructure and composition of materials, such as metals, ceramics, polymers, and composites. The high resolution and magnification of SEM images can reveal details about the material’s surface morphology, crystal structure, and chemical composition.
Biological research: SEMs are also used in the field of biology to study the structure and function of cells and tissues. The high-resolution images produced by SEMs can provide detailed information about the shape, size, and surface features of cells, as well as the arrangement of tissues and organs.
Forensic analysis: SEMs can be used in forensic science to examine trace evidence, such as fibers, hair, and gunshot residue. By analyzing the surface features and chemical composition of these materials, forensic scientists can gain valuable information about a crime scene or suspect.
Semiconductor manufacturing: SEMs are widely used in the semiconductor industry to inspect and analyze the surfaces of microchips and other electronic components. The high resolution and magnification of SEM images can help manufacturers identify defects and optimize the performance of their products.
Overall, the scanning electron microscope is a versatile and powerful tool for analyzing the structure and composition of materials in a wide range of fields, from basic research to industrial applications.
What is differential scanning calorimetry used for?
Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a thermal analysis technique that is used to measure the thermal properties of materials. DSC works by heating or cooling a sample at a controlled rate and measuring the amount of heat absorbed or released by the sample as a function of temperature.
DSC is commonly used in materials science and engineering to investigate the thermal properties of polymers, composites, and other materials. Some of the specific applications of DSC include:
Thermal analysis of polymers: DSC can be used to measure the glass transition temperature, melting point, crystallization temperature, and other thermal properties of polymers. This information is important for understanding the behavior of polymers in various applications, such as in packaging, textiles, and medical devices.
Characterization of pharmaceuticals: DSC is also used in the pharmaceutical industry to investigate the thermal behavior of drugs and drug delivery systems. DSC can be used to measure the melting point and other thermal properties of drugs, which can help in the formulation of drugs and in the development of new drug delivery systems.
Analysis of food products: DSC can be used to study the thermal properties of food products, such as fats, oils, and proteins. This information is useful for understanding the changes that occur in food during processing, storage, and cooking.
Quality control: DSC is also used in quality control applications to ensure the consistency and quality of materials. For example, DSC can be used to measure the thermal stability of lubricants, which can indicate the presence of contaminants or degradation products.
Overall, differential scanning calorimetry is a valuable tool for investigating the thermal properties of materials in a wide range of applications. By measuring the amount of heat absorbed or released by a material as a function of temperature, DSC can provide important information about the behavior and performance of materials under different thermal conditions.