Question 55 (Textile Engineering & Fibre Science)
During burning, a flame retardant does NOT
|(A)||Increase heat absorption|
|(B)||Reduce supply of oxygen|
|(C)||Increase char content|
|(D)||Lower glass transition temperature (Tg)|
Frequently Asked Questions | FAQs
What is flame retardant made of?
Flame retardants are chemical substances that are added to materials, including textiles, to reduce their flammability and slow down the spread of flames. Flame retardants can be made of various materials, depending on the type of flame retardant and the intended application. Some common materials used in flame retardants for textiles include:
Inorganic flame retardants: These are typically inorganic compounds, such as metal hydroxides (e.g., aluminum hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide), metal phosphates (e.g., ammonium polyphosphate), or boron compounds (e.g., borax), which are mixed with other additives to form a flame retardant formulation. Inorganic flame retardants work by releasing water or other fire-extinguishing gases when heated, diluting the flammable gases and reducing the availability of oxygen, which can help slow down or extinguish the flame.
Organic flame retardants: These are typically organic compounds that contain halogens (e.g., bromine, chlorine), phosphorus, or nitrogen, and are mixed with other additives to form a flame retardant formulation. Organic flame retardants can work through various mechanisms, such as thermal degradation, gas phase flame inhibition, or char formation, to reduce the flammability of the material.
Reactive flame retardants: These are chemical compounds that are chemically bonded to the textile material during the manufacturing process, becoming an integral part of the material. Reactive flame retardants can be inorganic or organic compounds and work by forming a protective char layer or inhibiting the combustion process.
Nanocomposite flame retardants: These are flame retardant materials that are in the form of nanoparticles, which can be dispersed in a polymer matrix to enhance the flame retardant properties of the material. Nanocomposite flame retardants can be made of various materials, such as metal oxides, clay minerals, or carbon nanomaterials.
The specific composition of flame retardants used in textiles can vary depending on the desired level of flame retardancy, the type of textile material, the regulatory requirements, and other factors. It’s important to note that flame retardants are subject to regulations and standards to ensure their safety and effectiveness, and their use in textiles is carefully regulated by various organizations and agencies worldwide.